Monday, January 14, 2019
Race, ethnicity, prejudice: white Australia policy Essay
This paper is divided into twain parts. In the first part the concepts or incline, paganity, damage and racial discrimination ar defined and how they are connected is discussed. Part 2 of the paper looks at the blanched Australia polity and why it was introduced. The impact of such a racial in-migration history on coeval Australia is also discussed in toll of attitudes and behaviours of the population.Following is a brief discussion on how successive governance policies and non- establishment organisations have tried to deal with and eradicate racial discrimination and discrimination against nonage themes in Australia since the blank Australia policy was abolished in the 1940s. Lastly, the tensions that remain today in multi heathen Australia are explored. Part 1 What is prevail? During the late eighteenth and early 19th centuries it was thought that humans could be divided into diametric groups according to their biological makeup,or alternatively, their race. Th e term race foc employ more than on common features that were shared among a single species, kinda than placing wildness on the characteristics which divide us (Cohen & adenosine monophosphate Kennedy, 2007 Giddens, 2001). The emerging theories of race were used to justify the rising accessible recite as England along with other European nations became imperial powers. It was thought that there were three main race categories, white, black and yellow, with the white race being the superior race (Giddens, 2001).Today, sociologists disapprove the idea of racial hierarchy amongst humankind and propose that race is a social ready related to the itinerarys that people and cultures interpret, and react to, sm wholly in all(a) physical differences (Van Krieken, Habibis, Smith, Hutchins, Haralambos & axerophthol Holborn, 2006, p. 264). The idea of significant biological differences has been debunked in contemporary sociology and the notion re displaced with the emergence of hea thenishity. What is ethnicity?The idea of race is a social construct based on innate physical differences, while ethnicity is purely social in meaning based on less obvious differences such as social markers of culture, language, religion, style of dress and nationality (Giddens, 2001 Cohen & antiophthalmic factor Kennedy, 2007 Van Krieken et al, 2010 Matsumoto &type A Juang, 2004). In other words, it looks at how one group of people are distinguishable from another based on differences that are learned. In practice, ethnic labels almost always apply to nonage groups within a society.This is elusive in the sense that it poses a risk of separation between us and them (Giddens, 2001 Van Krieken et al, 2010). Another problem is that ethnic groupings are often overly generic. In Australia, for example, we might speak of a Muslim ethnic group or the Muslim community. Muslim, therefore, be drives one category which in event holds a number of subgroups itself which does not get acknow ledged. Another issue arising from ethnic grouping is that labels are unremarkably given to the minority, when in fact, we are all ethnic regardless of if we belong to an ethnic minority or majority.What is detriment? Prejudice refers to flavours or attitudes held by members of one groups towards another (Giddens, 2001, p. 250). These opinions and attitudes are usually based on preconceived views based on stereotypes rather than tell and are hard to change even when presented with evidence stating otherwise (McConnochie, Hollinsworth & Pettman, 1988). Prejudice is based on internal beliefs and when those beliefs lead to a particular behaviour as a result it turns into discrimination.For example, if people are denied the equivalent opportunities, such as gaining employment, based on their skin colour, their ethnicity or check as a result of prejudice, prejudice becomes discrimination. What is racism? When we speak of race, ethnicity and prejudice we are intrinsically linki ng racism as well. Racism is prejudice interpreted another step further. In contrast to prejudice, racism is based on perceived cultural high quality, which is itself based on perceived genetic superiority (McConnochie et al, 1988). There are two forms of racism individual and institutional.Individual racism involves one-on-one scenarios where anti-Semite(a) attitudes are expressed based on a particular individuals belief towards another. For example, one person might be of the opinion that all Aboriginals are dirty, and therefore, be racist to an Aboriginal when they are walking down the street, at school or maneuver. institutional racism on the other hand is far broader in scope and more complex. It refers to the ways in which racism has infiltrated into social institutions which govern, discriminate and break down various groups within that society based on their race (McConnochie et al, 1988).These institutions within our societies, such as schools and healthcare services , use racism in a systematic manner which favours one group over all the others. Although racism as a notion is the same for both individual and institutional purposes, the consequences of the two are vastly different. Sociologists have argued that in the recent long time racism has shifted from excluding groups on a biological basis, to more of a cultural basis of difference (Giddens, 2001 Van Krieken et al, 2010). In this bare-ass wave of racism there are clearly underlying political dimensions.Part 2 The discolour Australia Policy (1880s 1940s) Australia as we know it today is a result of careful political planning and construction to create a particular kind of society. From early European settlers until the late 19th blow Australia had an open immigration policy ( neck, Castles & Kalantzis, 1991). Everyone was welcome and promote to come as populating the land was the primary absorb. However, immigration legislation changed as unemployment grade started rising and fear s of over population from the Chinese was ignited.As a result, the gabardine Australia policy was introduced in 1980 and lasted through to early 1940s (Van Krieken et al, 2010 Jupp, 2002). Economic and cultural reasons were the main reasons for introducing the White Australia policy (Windschuttle, 2005). Social cohesion was a truly concern at the time and it was believed that solidarity could not be maintained with so many inferior races populating the nation. It was believed that, in accordance to Darwins theory of evolution, the fittest race will survive and the weakest would be eliminated accordingly.These were the main underlying rationales for keeping Australia as pure as possible. Impact of Australias Immigration history on the attitudes and behaviours of contemporary Australians As contemporary Australia becomes more diverse, racist attitudes embedded from immigration history and previous policies can still be felt. Expression of racism through attitudes and behaviours has taken on new form. Contemporary expressions of racism track down to be focused on national identity and nationhood rather than genetic superiority, and tend to also be fuelled by the popular media.Once again, the concern appears to be on social cohesion and the belief that minority groups place the cohesion and national identity at risk, showing remnants of the White Australia policy. native racist beliefs and attitudes expressed today are targeted towards minority groups who potentially are the most disadvantaged. Measures taken by the government to address this disadvantage is seen as an unfair privileged treatment at the expense of the majority. Examples of this include antagonist towards action policies promoting Indigenous Australians into certain jobs and provision of English language turn emerge to newcomers.Attempts at eradicating racism and discrimination against minority groups and individuals since the end of the White Australia policy Assimilation lasted from the 19 40s until the mid(prenominal) 1960s. This new policy adopted the assumptions from the White Australia policy on preserving the society as homogenous in order to keep cohesion and harmoniousness. It meant that immigrants should absorb themselves into mainstream culture as quickly as possible and become as Australian as possible (Van Krieken et al, 2010 Cope et al, 1991).Government policies were put into place for English language lessons, which were at the sum of the policy, along with services to help migrants find employment and help them out with housing upon their arrival (Van Krieken et al, 2010). In other words, the main emphasis of the socialization policy was to make them look like us as more and as quickly as possible. Integration followed on from assimilation and lasted from the mid 1960s to the early 1970s. The expectations of the assimilation policy and the evident reality were rather different and as a result the integration approach appeared.The government shifted fo cus from making them like us to educating the Australian public to acquire and welcome the new changes and the hold to change attitudes to be less portentous and negative to more tolerant. With new policies developed at the time, overall differences were welcomed and encouraged into the public domain. By the early to mid 1970s multiculturalism was introduced as an set out to ease some of the tensions and anxieties and started the shift from British focused immigration.The Racial secretion Act was introduced in 1975 and racism was officially legislated against. Under the new RDA it became against the faithfulness to discriminate in areas such as housing, employment and provision of services. By the 1980s, multiculturalism was being redefined, and the emphasis of the concept was equity across the board for all individuals in Australia irrespective of their background (Van Krieken et al, 2010). Multiculturalism was a concept encompassing the need for unity, cellular inclusion, t olerance, acceptance and equality.What tensions remain today in multicultural Australia? Despite the compel by the government for all residents to recognize as an Australian and work together to develop a national identity, whilst providing equal opportunities and access across the board, it hasnt been an easy journey to date. At the core of the issue of Australia as a multicultural nation is national identity. Defining what it means to be Australian has been problematic over the years and has usually reflected political movements.Remnants of White Australia policy can still, however, be felt in todays society as they are expressed through traditional racist attitudes and beliefs and are sometimes the cause of racial attacks, segregation and anxiety of minority groups. Moreover, tension exists on a number of other issues including the feeling of transmutation for migrants of non-English-speaking background who after some time do not identify with the Australian national identity nor with their mother-land (Jupp, 2002). They face a number of fitting issues as well such as struggling to gain employment. different issues still relevant in multicultural Australia include limited inclusion of Indigenous issues within the policies, tension in relation to Asian immigration, the fulfilment to which different value and belief systems are accepted and allowed for, the uncertainty of the share and nature of ethnic and minority groups within the broader mainstream society, the correlation of class, gender and ethnicity, the skirmish between inclusion and tolerance and the currently hot debated issue on asylum seekers (Jupp, 2002 Van Krieken et al, 2010).In conclusion, whilst multiculturalism has certainly been a step beforehand and progressive thus far in unifying all Australian citizens as one there is still a long way to go before the ideal is achieved. More research is needed in areas that affect minority groups and the daily issues they are confront with based on their gender, age and ethnicity. The findings need to be considered and used when in writing new policies for the nation.While there is no easy answer to any of the issues Australia is faced with today, a new form of multiculturalism with an even bigger focus on unity, respect and mindfulness is needed in progressing forward. Refrences Cope, B. , Castles, S. , & Kalantzis, M. (1991). Historical overview of the assumptions about the relationship between immigration and social cohesion. In Immigration, ethnic meshing and social cohesion (Ch. 2, pp. 3 19). Centre for Multicultural Studies, University of Wollongong, Canberra AGPS.Cohen, R. & Kennedy, P. (2007). Social Inequalities Gender, Race and Class. In Global Sociology. (2nd edition, Ch 6, pp 157 162). Giddens, A. (2001). Race, Ethnicity and Migration. In Sociology. (4th edition, Ch 9, pp 244 277). Cambridge Polity Press. Jupp, J. (2002). From White Australia to Woomera The Story of Australian Immigration. Cambridge Cambridge University Press. McConnochie, K. , Hollinsworth, D. , & Pettman, J. (1988). Race and racism in Australia. Wentworth Falls, NSW Macleay Press. Matsumoto, D.& Juang, L. (2004) Culture and psychology (3rd ed. ). Cambridge Cambridge University Press. Van Krieken, R. , Habibis, D. , Smith, P. , Hutchins, B. , Haralambos, M. , & Holborn, M. (Eds. ). (2006). Sociology. Themes and Perspectives. (3rd ed. ). Frenchs Forest Pearson Longman. Van Krieken, R. et al (2010). Identities Indigenous, National, Ethnic and Racial. In Sociology. (4th edition, Ch 8, pp 256 282). Sydney Pearson. Windschuttle. K. (2005). The White Australia policy. Sydney Papers, 17(3-4), 129-134.