Monday, March 4, 2019
What are the factors that have caused British political parties to change their policies on the EU since 1970?
Abstract There ar a human activity of different factors that have caused British indemnity- do parties to change their policies on the EU, to that degree it is often very ticklish to determine what these are. Whilst some may argue that it is down to a change in mankind attitudes (Ladrech, 2001, p. 4), others would argue that society position changes occur as a result of environmental incentives with companionship organisation (Schumacher et al 2009, p. 1). Regardless, EU integration is one of the main issues that has carve up British political parties since the 1970s and Britains EU membership has had a significant impact upon political parties. Hence, the two main themes that have pass on through the main parties with regards to the EU are division and fragmentation, which has led more to believe that Europe has essentially become a cause of political cleavage (Smith, 2012, p. 1277) that has widely impacted mainstream political parties. This excogitate will thus analy se the changing approaches of British political parties since the 1970s in ordinance to determine what factors have led to a change in policies. existence Introduction to the Study Since the United Kingdom became a member of the European fraternity, there has been a significant amount of controversy that has surrounded the move. The UK had been nerve-wracking to join the EU since 1961, yet its membership was rejected by the cut President. It wasnt until 1973 when the UK finally became a member and although a referendum was held two days later, which resulted in the public voting in favour of the UKs membership, many an(prenominal) have continued to forefront whether it was in fact a solid move. Accordingly, some have argued against further EU integration, whilst others have argued for complete EU withdrawal. This so-called Euroscepticism has existed since the very beginning and has had a significant impact upon the policies of British political parties. In accordance with th is, it will be considered what factors actually caused British political parties to change their policies on the EU since 1970. query Objective The objective of this search is to consider what causes British political parties to change their EU policies and to determine what parties are cautious of further EU integration. It will also allow an estimation to be made as to whether there are any parties who bridge over the withdrawal from the EU. Thus, it will also be shown that debate surrounding the EU has not been sustained and that many challenges still exist, causing many to question Britains EU membership. belles-lettres ReviewIntroduction When the UK became a member of the EU, every political political society was in agreement, yet many debates have subsequently been made as to whether it was the right decision to make. Hence, the debates between Eurosceptics and EU supporters are still current in British political parties today, though there the views of the Conservative and beat back parties are diverse and appear to change frequently. Accordingly, during the 1970s and 1980s the force party appeared to be more Europsceptic than the Conservative party and thereby pledge to extricate ourselves from the Treaty of Rome and other Community treaties (Politea, 2007, p. 1). During the 1990s, however, the Conservative party appeared to be moving in the same direction by making a pledge not to co-operate with the EU. Nevertheless, public support for the EU began to begin since it was believed that the EU would be a good thing for Britain, in particular after(prenominal) the Thatcherism era. As much(prenominal), Europe appeared to be fundamental to the governments attempts to revisal the Thatcher settlement and symbolized a modification of some of its less palatable elements (Gifford, 2008, p. 114).Literature Review Regardless of the EUs initial support, Eurosceptiscim is still prevailing in Britain today and many questions have been raised as to wh y British political parties have continued to change their policies on the EU since the UKs integration in 1970. Whilst some argue that material factors, such as anti-market and anti-capitalist, are the reason why the policies have shifted, others believe that ideology, such as national sovereignty and anti-immigration is the reason for the shift. Nonetheless, as put by Kopecky (2002, p. 297) ideology is the dominant explanation for both types of support, although strategy at clock plays a role in explaining specific support. Regardless, it has been argued that the Chevenementists shift away from left-right billet has not paid off electorally (Milner, 2004, p. 59). This is widely due to the mistrust the public will have in political parties who frequently change their perspective and although there may be a number of different factors as to why this happens the public will be fearful of neo-liberal policies. Still, others believe that the changes in policies are primarily the res ult of Britains desire to maintain emancipation and sovereignty (Harmsen and Spiering, 2005, p. 14). Whether Britains current policies will be maintained is doubtful, especially in light of the recent policy changes The last two and a half years have seen the biggest change of Britains European policy in its four-decade membership of the European Union (Teasdale, 2013, p. 1).Theoretical Approaches A Culturalist guess of political change will be used in this theatre in order to explain why political change occurs. This appears to be the most appropriate way to determine what factors have caused British political parties to change their policies on the EU since 1970. This is because Culturalist theory is based on the nous that people do not respond directly to situations they face and that preferably situations are seen through orientations (Eckstein, 1988, p. 790). Hence, orientations are how information is processed and can be changed depending on what is being taught. Accordin gly, as noted by Eckstein (1992, p. 281) a cogent, potentially powerful theory of political change can be derived from Culturalist premises.Research Question What factors have caused British political parties to change their policies on the EU?How have attitudes towards Europe shifted amongst the two main parties?Proposed MethodologyIn obtaining the pertinent information for this study it will be necessary to use a secondary research approach. This is because, already existing data will be capable of being collected and then analysed in order to strike an appropriate conclusion. This is the most cost effective and efficient way of hive away data and is more feasible than using primary research. Hence, it would be difficult to gain access to political parties in order to obtain their views. Therefore, for the purposes of this study it would be impracticable to use primary research. Opinions will thus be acquired from relevant scholars, theorists, politicians and academics in order to allow a general overview of the motif to be provided. These will be obtained from textbooks, journal articles, online legal databases and governmental reports.References Eckstein, H. (1992) Regarding political relation Essays on Political Theory, Stability and Change, University of California Press.Gifford, C. (2008) The Making of Eurosceptic Britain Identity and preservation in a Post-Imperial State, Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Harmsen, R. and Spiering, M. (2005) Eurosceptism, Rodopi.Jansen, J. J. and Jansen, S. J. M. (2011) Fiscal Sovereignty of the Member States in an Internal Market Past Future, Kluwer Law International.Kopecky, P. (2002) The Two Sides of Euroscepticism, Party Positions on European Integration in East Central Europe, European Union Politics, SAGE Journals, Volume 3, No. 3.Ladrech, R. (2001) Europeanization and Political Parties Towards a Framework for Analysis, Keele University, Online available bdi.mfa.government.bg// 05 April, 2013.Milner, S. (2004) For an A lternative Europe Euroscepticism and the French Left Since the Maastricth Treaty, Online Available http//www.ingentaconnect.com/content/rodopi/es/2004/00000020/00000001/art00004 02 April, 2013.Schumacher, G., de Vris, C. E., and Vis, B., (2009) Why Political Parties Change Their Positions Environmental Incentives & Party Organisation, 05 April, 2013.Smith, J. (2012) The European Dividing stock certificate in Party Politics, International Affairs, 6.Teasdale, A. (2013) Will Eurosis Condemn Britain to be an alien Looking InEUROPP, Online Available http//blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2013/03/05/uk-eu-outsider/ 03 April, 2013.